Advanced RCC is driven by more than the VEGF pathway1-4
Functional loss of VHL upregulates proteins such as MET, AXL, VEGF, and others. Overexpression of these proteins promotes tumor angiogenesis, growth, invasiveness, and metastasis.
As seen in preclinical models.1
CABOMETYX inhibits more than the VEGF pathway1-5
CABOMETYX inhibits key receptors, including VEGFR, MET, and AXL, which are involved in normal and pathologic processes such as tumor growth, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and metastasis.
*Mechanism of action is shown based on in vitro biochemical and/or cellular assays.
AXL=growth arrest-specific protein 6 receptor; MET=hepatocyte growth factor receptor; RCC=renal cell carcinoma; VEGF=vascular endothelial growth factor; VHL=von Hippel-Lindau.
CABOMETYX® (cabozantinib) is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Hemorrhage: Severe and fatal hemorrhages have occurred with CABOMETYX. In RCC trials, the incidence of Grade ≥3 hemorrhagic events was 3% in CABOMETYX patients. Do not administer CABOMETYX to patients that have or are at risk for severe hemorrhage.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Perforations and Fistulas: In RCC trials, GI perforations were reported in 1% of CABOMETYX patients. Fatal perforations occurred in patients treated with CABOMETYX. In RCC studies, fistulas were reported in 1% of CABOMETYX patients. Monitor patients for symptoms of perforations and fistulas, including abscess and sepsis. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who experience a GI perforation or a fistula that cannot be appropriately managed.
Thrombotic Events: Thrombotic events increased with CABOMETYX. In RCC trials, venous thromboembolism occurred in 9% (including 5% pulmonary embolism) and arterial thromboembolism occurred in 1% of CABOMETYX patients. Fatal thrombotic events occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop an acute myocardial infarction or any other arterial thromboembolic complication.
Hypertension and Hypertensive Crisis: Treatment-emergent hypertension, including hypertensive crisis, increased with CABOMETYX. In RCC trials, hypertension was reported in 44% (18% Grade ≥3) of CABOMETYX patients. Monitor blood pressure prior to initiation and regularly during CABOMETYX treatment. Withhold CABOMETYX for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with medical management; when controlled, resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Discontinue CABOMETYX if there is evidence of hypertensive crisis or for severe hypertension that cannot be controlled with antihypertensive therapy or medical management.
Diarrhea: In RCC trials, diarrhea occurred in 74% of CABOMETYX patients. Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 11% of CABOMETYX patients. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 diarrhea or Grade 3-4 diarrhea that cannot be managed with standard antidiarrheal treatments until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose.
Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE): In RCC trials, PPE occurred in 42% of CABOMETYX patients. Grade 3 PPE occurred in 8% of CABOMETYX patients. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 PPE or Grade 3 PPE until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS): RPLS, a syndrome of subcortical vasogenic edema diagnosed by characteristic finding on MRI, occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Evaluate for RPLS in patients presenting with seizures, headache, visual disturbances, confusion, or altered mental function. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop RPLS.
Embryo-fetal Toxicity: CABOMETYX can cause fetal harm. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during CABOMETYX treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.
The most commonly reported (≥25%) adverse reactions were: diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, hypertension, PPE, weight decreased, vomiting, dysgeusia, and stomatitis.
Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors: If concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the CABOMETYX dosage.
Strong CYP3A4 Inducers: If concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inducers cannot be avoided, increase the CABOMETYX dosage.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Lactation: Advise women not to breastfeed while taking CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the final dose.
Hepatic Impairment: In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, reduce the CABOMETYX dosage. CABOMETYX is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Please see accompanying full Prescribing Information.
References: 1. Koochekpour S, Jeffers M, Wang PH, et al. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene inhibits hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced invasion and branching morphogenesis in renal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19(9):5902-5912. 2. Rankin EB, Fuh KC, Castellini L, et al. Direct regulation of GAS6/AXL signaling by HIF promotes renal metastasis through SRC and MET. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(37):13373-13378. 3. Wiesener MS, Münchenhagen PM, Berger I, et al. Constitutive activation of hypoxia-inducible genes related to overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α in clear cell renal carcinomas. Cancer Res. 2001;61(3):5215-5222. 4. Zhou L, Liu X-D, Sun M, et al. Targeting MET and AXL overcomes resistance to sunitinib therapy in renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene. 2016;35(21):2687-2697. doi:10.1038/onc.2015.343. 5. CABOMETYX® (cabozantinib) Prescribing Information. Exelixis, Inc, 2017. 6. Bukowski RM. Third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their development in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Front Oncol. 2012;2(13):1-10. 7. Kwilas AR, Ardiani A, Donahue RN, et al. Dual effects of a targeted small-molecule inhibitor (cabozantinib) on immune-mediated killing of tumor cells and immune tumor microenvironment permissiveness when combined with a cancer vaccine. J Transl Med. 2014;12:294